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Crew Resource Management (CRM)

English for Pilots

 

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TOPIC: Crew Resource Management (CRM)

Exercise #1: Read about CRM and then proceed to Exercise #2

Crew Resource Management (CRM) training originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 that focused on improving air safety. The NASA research presented at this meeting found that the primary cause of the majority of aviation accidents was human error, and that the main problems were failures of interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making in the cockpit. Originally, this concept was called Cockpit Resource Management because issues and communication among pilots was the core focus. However, over time, the name was changed to Crew Resource Management after the aviation industry realized that safety lies with everyone that is involved with flight.

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Parts of an Aircraft

Parts of Plane

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1. Read about the various major parts of an airplane, then proceed to Step 2

Although there are many aircraft designs flying today, most of them share a common assembly of major parts that all pilots should be thoroughly aware of. Ever since the early days of aviation, an aviator’s primary training included the fundamental knowledge of what each part is called, its function and where it is located.

Each major part of a fixed-wing aircraft serves an important purpose. For example, the propeller helps move the aircraft through the air via thrust. The wings are lifting bodies which help keep the aircraft airborne. The horizontal and vertical stabilizers contain vital control surfaces; and the fuselage is a major structural component containing crew and passenger areas.

 

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Depressurization

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Depressurization – The Need, Types and Management

Depressurization is the reduction of air pressure in the cabin of an aircraft. Sudden depressurization can result from a failure in the pressurization system, a structural failure or can be initiated deliberately by a crew member of the aircraft.

Failure of the pressurization system is the most common cause of sudden depressurization. Malfunction of the engine or compressor, structural failures like incomplete or faulty sealing of doors, windows or cabin wall follow.

It is necessary to know why the cabin is pressurized in the first place to appreciate the importance of the task. Aircrafts fly at high altitude to avoid bad weather and turbulence. The air pressure at such high altitudes is extremely low and can make the human body uncomfortable. As the air pressure reduces, the pressure of the blood in the veins tends to rise and cause headaches, ear aches and other issues. It is essential to control the air pressure at such high altitudes to ensure that the human body stays comfortable. During landing the pressure is gradually lowered to match the air pressure outside.

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Ash Clouds

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TOPIC: Ash Clouds

Exercise #1: Read about the dangers of flying through ash clouds and how to handle such a situation.

This is an originally produced article and audio by Global Aviation English

In April 2010, Europe's skies remained largely closed for several days after a mass of volcanic ash which originated from Iceland blanketed the continent causing crippling flight delays. Due to the disruptions to air traffic, a major portion of 22,000 scheduled flights destined to take off from locations throughout Europe were cancelled. In fact, only 6,000 departed during the near weeklong event. The International Air Transport Association estimated the air traffic interruptions caused approximately $200 million in damage a day. Contrary to popular belief, flying through ash will not completely destroy an aircraft in seconds, but the abrasive particles will certainly cause great exterior and electrical damage to airplanes flying through the clouds over a very short period time.

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History of Aviation

Leonardo_da_Vinci_helicopter

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TOPIC: History of Aviation

 

GOAL: To learn about the origins of manned flight and its fascinating history

 

Level: Easy

 

Exercise #1: Read about the history of aviation and then proceed to Exercise #2

While many aviation professionals and enthusiasts recognize the beginnings of manned flight with the Wright Brothers or Santos Dumont, its origins really stretch well before those dates in aeronautical history. In fact, famous inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, John Stringfellow and Lawrence Hargrave had conjured up ideas of how to get some of the strangest machines to fly long before the Wright brothers' famous first flight at Kitty Hawk.

The kite was the first form of an aircraft believed to have been first designed in the 5th century BC. Roger Bacon, an English monk, performed studies later on in the 13th century which gave him the idea that air could support a craft just like water supports boats. In the 16th century, Leonardo da Vinci studied birds’ flight and later produced the airscrew and the parachute. The airscrew, leading to the propeller later on and the parachute were tremendously important contributions to aviation. He envisioned three different types of heavier-than-air craft; the helicopter, glider and ornithopter (a machine with mechanical wings which flaps to mimic a bird).

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The Good Old B52: America’s Veteran Bomber

B52

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The Good Old B52: America’s Veteran Bomber

 

Despite more sophisticated aircrafts, the B52 jet powered strategic bomber has been in active service since 1955. While much of it is attributed to the USAF teams that have maintained the aircraft, the main reason has been superior performance at sub supersonic speeds and relatively low operating costs. The B52 is slated to be in active service until 2040, 85 years since its commissioning.

Even before the production of B-36 started, the requirement for a bomber with a larger operational radius and greater speed was issued. The B52 was primarily meant for deterrent missions during the cold war era and designed as a high-level nuclear bomber that could take on the Soviet Union. That however became difficult with the arrival of SAM missiles. That was when B52 took on the role of a low-level bomber.

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Jet lag – Cause and Management

Jet lag

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Jet lag – Cause and Management

 

Also called desynchronosis, jet lag is a medical condition that occurs as a result of air travel across countries in different time zones in a short period of time. This is different from air sickness which is nausea experienced by some people every time they travel by air.

Some of the common symptoms of jet lag include headache, fatigue, insomnia, disrupted sleep pattern, irritability and digestive trouble.

The body can tell the time of the day with the help of specific signals that are received by the senses. For example, the optic nerve in the eyes receives information about the amount of light or darkness outside and transmits this to the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that controls various bodily functions like temperature, hunger, thirst and sleep as well.

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5 Steps to Becoming a Pilot

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Think you don't have the money or the time to learn to fly? Training to be a pilot can mean expensive instruction fees, high gas prices and maintenance charges, and it can require many hours of flight time. But becoming a pilot doesn't have to be out of reach. By planning ahead and making strategic decisions, anyone can become a licensed pilot. Just follow these steps:

1. Research, research, research Many aspects of the student pilot process require you to do your homework, and with all of the information available on the internet there is no excuse for you to spend a penny more than you have to. By accessing free pilot resources online (at FAA.org, for example) you will save on the cost of expensive printed materials. And if you do enough studying on your own you may not need to pay for ground school to pass the pilot's test.

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Aviation English – Portuguese Dictionary

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We are launching an English – Portuguese technical dictionary for aviation professionals. It provides the translation for technical aviation vocabulary for English and Portuguese. It also has an optional pronunciation guide for Aviation English terms.

Key benefits:

1. FREE to download (only pay for audio US$4.99)

2. Easy type and get dictionary (type by keyword and matching word will be listed below)

3. Confirm the correct English pronunciation

4. A comprehensive list of aviation terms included

5. Switch easily from Portuguese to English and English to Portuguese

6. Compatible for Apple iphone/ipad/itouch and Android

 

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Hijack-proof piloting

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A hijack-proof piloting system for airliners is being developed to prevent terrorists hijacking the planes.

The mechanism is designed to make it impossible to crash the aircraft into air or land targets – and enable the plane to be flown by remote control from the ground in the event of an emergency.

Scientists at aircraft giant Boeing are testing the tamper-proof autopilot system which uses state-of-the-art computer and satellite technology.

It will be activated by the pilot flicking a simple switch or by pressure sensors fitted to the cockpit door that will respond to any excessive force as terrorists try to break into the flight deck.

Once triggered, no one on board will be able to deactivate the system. Currently, all autopilots are manually switched on and off at the discretion of pilots.

After it has been activated, the aircraft will be capable of remote digital control from the ground, enabling operators to fly it like a sophisticated model plane, manoeuvring it vertically and laterally.

 

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Crew Resource Management (CRM)

English for Pilots

  [Audio clip: view full post to listen]TOPIC: Crew Resource Management (CRM) Exercise #1: Read about CRM and then proceed to Exercise #2 Crew Resource Management (CRM) training originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 that focused on improving air safety. The NASA research presented at this meeting found that …

Parts of an Aircraft

Parts of Plane

[Audio clip: view full post to listen] 1. Read about the various major parts of an airplane, then proceed to Step 2 Although there are many aircraft designs flying today, most of them share a common assembly of major parts that all pilots should be thoroughly aware of. Ever since …